Glossary of Terms
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given species, ecosystem, biome, or planet. This means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part and also includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystem.
Is defined in the National Environment Management Protected Areas Act3 (hereafter referred to as NEMPAA) to mean any resource consisting of-
a) a living or dead animal, plant or another organism of an indigenous species;
b) a derivative of such an animal, plant or another organism, as defined in section
c) any genetic material of such animal, plant or another organism, as defined in 1 of the
Biodiversity Act; or section 1 of the Biodiversity Act.
The biodiversity economy of South Africa encompasses the businesses and economic activities that either directly depends on biodiversity for their core business or that contribute to conservation of biodiversity through their activities.
" Is defined in the National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act1 (hereafter referred to as NEMBA) and the 2013 Amendment to the Act4 as any research on, or development or application of, indigenous biological resources for commercial exploitation 5 and includes 6]
a) the systematic search, collection or gathering of such resources or making extractions from such resources for purposes of such research, development or application,
b) the utilisation for purposes of such research or development of any information regarding any traditional uses of indigenous biological resources by indigenous communities, or
c) research on, or the application, development or modification of, any such traditional uses, for commercial or industrial exploitation, or
d) trading in and exporting indigenous biological resources in order to develop and produce products such as drugs, industrial enzymes, food flavours, fragrances, cosmetics, emulsifiers, oleoresins, extracts and essential oils.
BioTrade Means the buying and selling of indigenous biological resources for the purpose of:- (a) bioprospecting (b) product development; or (c) product manufacturing
Biodiversity Stewardship is about landowners/users being custodians of their land (including natural resources and biodiversity) through the sustainable use, management and protection of resources.
In relation to biological resources relates to the following activities: Filing of a complete intellectual property application, whether in South Africa or anywhere else; Obtaining or transferring any intellectual property right or any other right; Commencing product development, including the conducting of market research and seeking pre-market approval for the sale of resulting products; The multiplication of indigenous biological resources through cultivation, propagation, cloning or other means to produce and develop products, such as drugs, industrial enzymes, food flavours, fragrances, cosmetics, emulsifiers, oleoresins, extracts and essential oils. Trading in and exporting of indigenous biological resources to develop and produce products such as drugs, industrial enzymes, food flavours, fragrances, cosmetics, emulsifiers, oleoresins, extracts and essential oils; Commercial exploitation.
Conservation is the protection, preservation, management, or restoration of wildlife and natural resources such as flora and fauna. Through the conservation of biodiversity, the survival of many species and habitats which are threatened due to human activities can be ensured.
Refers to areas of various size, shape and composition that connect fragmented patches of habitat.
Ecological infrastructure refers to naturally functioning ecosystems that deliver valuable services to people, such as water and climate regulation, soil formation and disaster risk reduction. It is the nature-based equivalent of built or hard infrastructure and can be just as important for providing services and underpinning socio-economic development.
Are defined in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)8 report 2005, as the benefits people obtain from ecosystems and distinguishes four categories of ecosystem services, where the so-called supporting services are regarded as the basis for the services of the other three categories.
according to the Intellectual Property Law Amendment Act (2011), 9 means any recognizable community of people originated in or historically settled in a geographic area or areas located within the borders of the Republic, as such borders existed at the date of commencement of the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Act, 2011, characterized by social, cultural and economic conditions that distinguish them from other sections of the national community, and who identify themselves and are recognized by other groups as a distinct collective. Sustainability in relation to the use of a biological resource means the use of such resource in a way and at a rate that-
( a ) would not lead to its long-term decline;
8 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA). 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington. 155pp.
9 South Africa (2011) Intellectual Property Law Amendment Act.
According to NEMBA1 is defined to include- a) any genetic material; or b) the genetic potential or characteristics of any species.
Indigenous biological resources
are defined in NEMBA1 as:
(a) when used in relation to bioprospecting, means any indigenous biological resource as defined in section 80(2); or (b) when used in relation to any other matter, means any resource consisting of-
(i) any living or dead animal, plant or another organism of an indigenous
(ii) any derivative of such animal, plant or another organism; or
(iii) any genetic material of such animal, plant or another organism;
(i) genetic material of human origin;
(ii) any exotic animals, plants or other organisms, other than exotic animals,
(iii) indigenous biological resources listed in terms of the International Treaty plants or other organisms referred to in paragraph (u,)
(iii) and on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Joint Venture (JV) is a business agreement in which the parties agree to develop, for a finite time, a new entity and new assets by contributing equity.
Land reform may consist of a government-initiated or government-backed property redistribution.
Land Reform Biodiversity Stewardship Initiative
Land Reform Biodiversity stewardship is a voluntary agreement by landowner/user (whose land has been acquired through the land reform program) to safeguard biological diversity.
Land restitution deals with claims lodged in terms of the Restitution of Land Rights Act, 22 of 1994, under which a person or community dispossessed of property after 19 June 1913 (the date of the Natives Land Act), as a result of racially discriminatory laws or practice, is entitled to lodge a claim for restitution of that property or comparable redress.
The land redistribution programme aims to provide the disadvantaged and the poor with land for residential and productive purposes. This is affected mainly through the use of grants provided by the Department of Land Affairs for the acquisition of land on the open market (the willing buyer willing seller concept).
Land tenure reform
Land tenure reform aims to provide people with secure tenure where they live, to prevent arbitrary evictions and fulfil the constitutional requirement that all South Africans have access to land rights of legal standing and security.
Micro-financing is the provision of financial services to small businesses that lack banking-related services.
National Biodiversity Economy Strategy
would not disrupt the ecological integrity of the ecosystem in which it occurs; (c) would ensure its continued use to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations of people
Refers to the maintenance of areas that are not protected by legislation or designated as conservation areas, but nonetheless have conservation value.
Public-Private Partnerships (PPP)
"Public-Private Partnerships is a government service or private business venture which is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies."
Sustainable Use of Biological Resources
The use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does not lead to its long term decline, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations
in relation to the use of a biological resource, means the use of such resource in a way and at a rate that-
( a ) would not lead to its long-term decline;
(b) would not disrupt the ecological integrity of the ecosystem in which it occurs;
(c) would ensure its continued use to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations of people.
Glossary of Acronyms
Africa Development Bank
Annual Performance Plan
Biodiversity Finance Initiative
Chief Executive Council
Community Public Private Partnership
Community Property Association
Communal Areas Management Programme For Indigenous Resources
Development Bank of Southern Africa
Department of Environmental Affairs
Department of Tourism
Department of Rural Development and Land Reform
Economic Development Department
Expanded Public Works Programme
Extension of Security of Tenure Act
Financial Advisory and Intermediary Services
Global Environmental FacilitY
Geographic Information Systems
Integrated Coastal Management Act
International Finance Corporation
Land Reform and Biodiversity Stewardship Initiative
Labour Tenants Act
Micro-Enterprise Development Organisation
Monitoring, Evaluation and Intervention
Memorandum of Incorporation
Memorandum of Understanding
Marine Protected Area
Matrix for Unlocking Sustainable Development
National Biodiversity Assessment
National Biodiversity Economic Strategy
National Biodiversity Framework
National Environmental Management Act
National Development Plan
Non Governmental Organisations
New Growth Path
National Protected Area Expansion Strategy
Non Profit Company
National Strategy for Sustainable Development and Action Plan
Protected Area Act
Public Benefit Activities
Public Benefit Organisation
Payment for Ecosystem
Public Finance Management Act
Public Interest Score
Project Management Unit
Public Private Partnership
Rural Enterprise Industrial Development
Recapitalization and Development Programme
Site Assessment Form
South Africa National Biodiversity Institute
South Africa National Park
South Africa Revenue Services
Small Enterprise Development Agency
Small Grants Projects
Spatial Planning and Land Use Management
Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act
Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Bill
Stewardship Investment Fund
Settlement and Implementation Support Strategy
Tourism Enterprise Partnership
Financial Advisory and Intermediary Services
Value Added Tax
World Wide Fund for Nature
Wildlands Conservation Trust